- Foals: 70-120 bpm
- Yearlings: 45-60 bpm
- 2yr. olds: 40-50 bpm
- Adults: 30-40 bpm
- Resting Adult: 8-16 breaths per min
- Normal: Mixture of gurgling/grumbling sounds
- Abnormal: No gut sounds, sand on a beach sound
- Skin should recoil in less than 1 second
- Normal refill time is 1 to 2 seconds.
- Moist Pink: Healthy normal circulation.
- Very Pale Pink: Capillaries contracted, indicates fever, blood loss or anemia.
- Bright Red: Capillaries enlarged, indicates toxicity or mild shock.
- Gray or Blue: Severe shock, depression and illness.
- Bright Yellow: Associated with liver problems.
- Check Pulse: 1) Listen to your horse's heart beat (lub-dub) by placing a stethescope behind his left elbow. 2) Use your forefinger to press against your horse's artery under his left jawbone.
- Do a Pinch Test: Pinch the skin in the middle of your horse's neck for a second or two, then count how long it takes for the skin to recoil.
- Check CRT: Press a finger against your horse's upper gum for several seconds, then release and count how long it takes for the white spot to turn pink again.